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This article has been peer reviewed. It is the authors' final version prior to publication in Medical Clinics of North America, Volume 99 Issue 4, July 2015, Pages 863-876.

The published version is available at DOI: 10.1016/j.mcna.2015.02.012. Copyright © Elsevier Inc.


Heart failure is a common syndrome caused by different abnormalities of the cardiovascular system that result in impairment of the ventricles in filling or ejecting blood. It is one of the most common causes of hospitalization in the United States, with a very high cost to the health care system. This article focuses on the causes of left ventricle dysfunction and the presentation and management of heart failure, both acute and chronic.

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