Heart failure is a common syndrome caused by different abnormalities of the cardiovascular system that result in impairment of the ventricles in filling or ejecting blood. It is one of the most common causes of hospitalization in the United States, with a very high cost to the health care system. This article focuses on the causes of left ventricle dysfunction and the presentation and management of heart failure, both acute and chronic.
Bozorgnia, Behnam and Mather, Paul J., "Current Management of Heart Failure: When to Refer to Heart Failure Specialist and When Hospice is the Best Option." (2015). Division of Cardiology Faculty Papers. Paper 59.