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This article has been peer reviewed. It was published in: BioMed Research International

Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 854340, 6 pages

The published version is available at DOI: 10.1155/2013/854340. Copyright © Hindawi


BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is the most common chronic inflammatory condition worldwide and is associated with incident coronary disease.

HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that periodontal disease would also be associated with cardiac calcification, a condition which shares many risk factors with atherosclerosis and is considered a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis.

METHODS: Cross-sectional study at two sites (USA and Japan) involving subjects with both clinical echocardiograms and detailed dental examinations. Semiquantitative scoring systems were used to assess severity of periodontal disease and echocardiographic calcification.

RESULTS: Fifty-six of 73 subjects (77%) had cardiac calcifications, and 51% had moderate to severe periodontal disease (score > 2). In unadjusted analysis, a significant relationship between periodontal score and cardiac calcification (Spearman rho = 0.4, P = 0.001) was noted, with increases in mean calcification score seen across increasing levels of periodontal disease. On multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender, race, glomerular filtration rate, and traditional risk factors, this association remained significant (P = 0.024). There was no significant interaction by study site, race, or gender.

CONCLUSIONS: In a multiracial population, we found a significant association between the degree of periodontal disease, a chronic inflammatory condition, and cardiac calcification. Further, higher periodontal scores were associated with greater degrees of calcification.

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