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This article is the author's final published version in European Heart Journal - Case Reports, Volume 6, Issue 9, September 2022, Article number ytac362.

The published version is available at Copyright © The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.


BACKGROUND: Giant cell myocarditis (GCM) is a rare but well-known cause of fulminant myocarditis. Despite optimal medical therapy, many patients progress to orthotopic heart transplant (OHT). We present a case of recurrent GCM following OHT, including complex considerations in patient management and infectious sequelae.

CASE SUMMARY: A 33-year-old previously healthy male presented with 2 months of worsening shortness of breath. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) demonstrated a left ventricular ejection fraction of 30-35%. After ruling out an ischaemic aetiology, he was discharged on guideline-directed medical therapy and later presented with productive cough, worsening dyspnoea on exertion, and diarrhoea. He was found to have elevated troponins and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, lactic acidosis, progression of severe bi-ventricular dysfunction on TTE and right heart catheterization, and low cardiac index (1.0 L/min/m

DISCUSSION: Although recurrent GCM after OHT has been reported in the literature, the prognosis is not well understood and there are no clear guidelines regarding management. This case summarizes clinical considerations, treatment strategies, and adverse effects of recurrent GCM treatment.

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