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This article is the author’s final published version in American Heart Journal Plus: Cardiology Research and Practice, Volume 27, February 2023, Article number 100271.

The published version is available at Copyright © Casipit et al.


Background: There is paucity of data regarding the impact of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection on the outcomes of hospitalized liver cirrhosis (LC) patients with heart failure (HF).

Methods: Utilizing the 2020 National Inpatient Sample (NIS) Database, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to investigate the outcomes of hospitalized LC patients with HF and COVID-19 infection, looking at its impact on in-hospital mortality, risk for acute kidney injury (AKI) and length of stay (LOS).

Results: We identified a total of 10,810 hospitalized LC patients with HF, of which 1.39 % (n = 150/10,810) had COVID-19 infection. Using a stepwise survey multivariable logistic regression model that adjusted for patient and hospital level confounders, COVID-19 infection among hospitalized LC patients with HF was found to be an independent predictor of overall in-hospital mortality (aOR 3.73; 95 % CI, 1.58-8.79; p = 0.00) and risk for AKI (aOR 3.06; 95 % CI, 1.27-7.37; p = 0.01) compared to those without COVID-19 infection. However, there were comparable rates of LOS among LC patients with HF regardless of COVID-19 infection status. Moreover, AKI was found to be an independent predictor of longer LOS (coefficient 4.40, 95 % CI 3.26-5.38; p = 0.00). On subgroup analysis, diastolic HF was found to be associated with increased risk for in-hospital mortality (aOR 6.54; 95 % CI, 2.02-21.20; p = 0.00), development of AKI (aOR 3.33; 95 % CI, 1.12-9.91; p = 0.03) and longer LOS (coefficient 4.30, 95 % CI 0.79-9.45; p = 0.03).

Conclusion: Concomitant COVID-19 infection among hospitalized LC patients with HF was associated with higher risk for in-hospital mortality and AKI but did not significantly affect hospital LOS.

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