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This article is the author's final published version in Nature Communications, Volume 14, Issue 1, 2023, Article number 6703.

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Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) is a rare but potentially severe adverse event following immunization with adenovirus vector-based COVID-19 vaccines such as Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen) and ChAdOx1 (AstraZeneca). However, no case of TTS has been reported in over 1.5 million individuals who received a second immunization with Ad26.COV2.S in the United States. Here we utilize transcriptomic and proteomic profiling to compare individuals who receive two doses of Ad26.COV2.S with those vaccinated with BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273. Initial Ad26.COV2.S vaccination induces transient activation of platelet and coagulation and innate immune pathways that resolve by day 7; by contrast, patients with TTS show robust upregulation of these pathways on days 15-19 following initial Ad26.COV2.S vaccination. Meanwhile, a second immunization or a reduced initial dose of Ad26.COV2.S induces lower activation of these pathways than does the full initial dose. Our data suggest a role of coagulation and proinflammatory pathways in TTS pathogenesis, which may help optimize vaccination regimens to reduce TTS risk.

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