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This article is the authors' final version prior to publication in Anesthetic Techniques in Pain Management, Volume 25, Issue 12, December 2021, Article number 77.

The published version is available at Copyright © Springer


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss the available evidence and therapeutic considerations for intravenous drug therapy for refractory chronic migraine.

RECENT FINDINGS: In carefully monitored settings, the inpatient administration of intravenous lidocaine and ketamine can be successful in treating refractory chronic migraine. Many patients with refractory chronic migraine have experienced treatment failure with the Raskin protocol. The use of aggressive inpatient infusion therapy consisting of intravenous lidocaine or ketamine, along with other adjunctive medications, has become increasingly common for these patients when all other treatments have failed. There is a clear need for prospective studies in this population comprised of patients who have largely been excluded from other studies.

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