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This article is the author’s final published version in Cureus, Volume 12, Issue 5, May 2020, e8332.

The published version is available at . Copyright © Qian Zhang, et al.


Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic drugs manufactured to mimic the male sex hormone testosterone [1]. They are usually prescribed for medical conditions including but not limited to impotence in males, endometriosis, hypogonadism, and aplastic anemia [2]. It has also been used historically by athletes and bodybuilders to enhance performance as it can stimulate protein synthesis leading to an increase in muscle size and strength [3]. However, the use of AAS has become a serious global public health dilemma as it has been used widely by the general population to improve physical strength and appearance [1]. In 2013, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that 3.2% of high school students had taken AAS without a doctor's prescription at least once in their lifetime [4]. In a meta-analysis of 187 studies, the overall global lifetime prevalence rate of AAS use was 3.3% and it is higher in men (6.4%) than in women (1.6%) [1]. Approximately one million people, predominantly males, had developed AAS use dependence [5]. AAS use is associated with an increase in cardiovascular diseases with the rising incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) in young patients with a history of anabolic steroid use. Unfortunately, the abuse of AAS has remained on the rise despite their well-known deleterious effects. Here, we present a case of an acute MI in a 31-year-old man who was found to have cyclic AAS use while being treated with infliximab for Crohn's disease.

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