OBJECTIVES: This study sought to define contemporary trends in permanent pacemaker use by analyzing a large national database.
BACKGROUND: The Medicare National Coverage Determination for permanent pacemaker, which emphasized single-chamber pacing, has not changed significantly since 1985. We sought to define contemporary trends in permanent pacemaker use by analyzing a large national database.
METHODS: We queried the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to identify permanent pacemaker implants between 1993 and 2009 using the International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision-Clinical Modification procedure codes for dual-chamber (DDD), single-ventricular (VVI), single-atrial (AAI), or biventricular (BiV) devices. Annual permanent pacemaker implantation rates and patient demographics were analyzed.
RESULTS: Between 1993 and 2009, 2.9 million patients received permanent pacemakers in the United States. Overall use increased by 55.6%. By 2009, DDD use increased from 62% to 82% (p < 0.001), whereas single-chamber ventricular pacemaker use fell from 36% to 14% (p = 0.01). Use of DDD devices was higher in urban, nonteaching hospitals (79%) compared with urban teaching hospitals (76%) and rural hospitals (72%). Patients with private insurance (83%) more commonly received DDD devices than Medicaid (79%) or Medicare (75%) recipients (p < 0.001). Patient age and Charlson comorbidity index increased over time. Hospital charges ($2011) increased 45.3%, driven by the increased cost of DDD devices.
CONCLUSIONS: There is a steady growth in the use of permanent pacemakers in the United States. Although DDD device use is increasing, whereas single-chamber ventricular pacemaker use is decreasing. Patients are becoming older and have more medical comorbidities. These trends have important health care policy implications.
Recommended CitationGreenspon, Arnold J; Patel, Jasmine D; Lau, Edmund; Ochoa, Jorge A; Frisch, Daniel R; Ho, Reginald T; Pavri, Behzad B.; and Kurtz, Steven M, "Trends in permanent pacemaker implantation in the United States from 1993 to 2009: increasing complexity of patients and procedures." (2012). Cardiology Faculty Papers. Paper 18.