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This article has been peer reviewed. It is the authors' final version prior to publication in Journal of Urology, October 2019.

The published version is available at Copyright © Goldberg et al.


PURPOSE: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) with informed targeted biopsies (TGBX) has changed the paradigm of prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis. Randomized studies have demonstrated a diagnostic benefit of Clinically significant (CS) for TGBX compared to standard systematic biopsies (SBX). We aimed to evaluate whether mpMRI-informed TGBX has superior diagnosis rates of any-, CS-, high-grade (HG)-, and clinically insignificant (CI)-PCa compared to SBX in biopsy-naive men.

METHODS: Data was searched in Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Evidence-based medicine reviews-Cochrane Database of systematic reviews from database inception until 2019. Studies were selected by two authors independently, with disagreements resolved by consensus with a third author. Overall 1951 unique references were identified, and 100 manuscripts underwent full-text review. Data were pooled using random-effects models. The meta-analysis is reported according to the PRISMA statement. The study protocol is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42019128468).


Overall 29 studies (13,845 patients) were analyzed. Compared to SBX, use of mpMRI-informed TGBX was associated with a 15% higher rate of any PCa diagnosis (95% CI 10-20%, p<0.00001). This relationship was not affected by the study methodology (p=0.11). Diagnosis of CS and HG PCa were more common in the mpMRI-informed TGBX group (risk difference of 11%, 95% CI 0-20%, p=0.05, and 2%, 95% CI 1-4%; p=0.005, respectively) while there was no difference in diagnosis of CI PCa (risk difference of 0, 95% CI -3-3%, p=0.96). Notably, the exclusion of SBX in the mpMRI-informed TGBX arm significantly modified the association between a mpMRI strategy and lower rates of CI PCa diagnosis (p=0.01) without affecting the diagnosis rates of CS- or HG-PCa.

CONCLUSIONS: In comparison to SBX, a mpMRI-informed TGBX strategy results in a significantly higher diagnosis rate of any-, CS-, and HG-PCa. Excluding SBX from mpMRI-informed TGBX was associated with decreased rates of CI-PCa diagnosis without affecting diagnosis of CS- or HG-PCa.

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