Kikuchi disease, also known as histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis or Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease, is a rare condition that typically presents with fever and cervical lymphadenopathy in previously healthy young women. First described by Dr. Kikuchi and independently by Dr. Fujimoto in Japan in 1972, the disease is benign and usually self-limited. However, because it can present dramatically and mimic more serious conditions such as lymphoma and tuberculous adenitis, recognizing Kikuchi disease is crucial to avoid misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. This case describes a patient who presented with severe manifestations of Kikuchi disease that generated an extensive workup and differential diagnosis prior to its identification.