In 1872, Moritz Kaposi first described "an idiopathic multiple pigmented sarcoma of the skin;'' now identified as Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).' While multiple forms ofKSexist, over9S% of the cases diagnosed in the US since 1981 are of the AIDS associated variety.2 Kaposi originally described KS as skin lesions that can progress to visceral involvement. However, in a small number of cases, KS can appear in the viscera without skin involvement. These alternate presentations of KS are difficult to diagnose; therefore, it is critical to recognize them when considering differential diagnoses, particularly in patients with HIV.

Case Presentation

An 18-year-old African American male with a history ofHIV presented with progressive worsening of diffuse and painful lymphadenopathy fore five weeks prior to admission. The patient was diagnosed with HIV in 2010 and due to insurance issues, was never treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). His last CD4 count (approximately two weeks prior to admission) was 411 and he had no history of opportunistic infections. He first noticed swelling in his neck, under his armpits and in his groin five weeks prior, which had become progressively more painful. The patient denied fevers, chills or weight loss, but did report significant night sweats and episodes ofhemoptysis with dots. He denied shortness ofbreath or chest pain. He also denied recent travel, history of incarceration, homelessness or exposure to active tuberculosis infection.