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This article is the author’s final published version in Cells, Volume 10, Issue 2, February 2021, Article number 387.

The published version is available at Copyright © Garikipati et al.


Compared to low doses of gamma irradiation (γ-IR), high-charge-and-energy (HZE) particle IR may have different biological response thresholds in cardiac tissue at lower doses, and these effects may be IR type and dose dependent. Three- to four-month-old female CB6F1/Hsd mice were exposed once to one of four different doses of the following types of radiation: γ-IR 137Cs (40-160 cGy, 0.662 MeV), 14Si-IR (4-32 cGy, 260 MeV/n), or 22Ti-IR (3-26 cGy, 1 GeV/n). At 16 months post-exposure, animals were sacrificed and hearts were harvested and archived as part of the NASA Space Radiation Tissue Sharing Forum. These heart tissue samples were used in our study for RNA isolation and microarray hybridization. Functional annotation of twofold up/down differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and bioinformatics analyses revealed the following: (i) there were no clear lower IR thresholds for HZE- or γ-IR; (ii) there were 12 common DEGs across all 3 IR types; (iii) these 12 overlapping genes predicted various degrees of cardiovascular, pulmonary, and metabolic diseases, cancer, and aging; and (iv) these 12 genes revealed an exclusive non-linear DEG pattern in 14Si- and 22Ti-IR-exposed hearts, whereas two-thirds of γ-IR-exposed hearts revealed a linear pattern of DEGs. Thus, our study may provide experimental evidence of excess relative risk (ERR) quantification of low/very low doses of full-body space-type IR-associated degenerative disease development.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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