Document Type


Publication Date



This article is the author's final published version in Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 13, February 2023, Article number 1062535.

The published version is available at Copyright © 2023 Nash and Newberg.


This paper revisits the proposal for the classification of meditation methods which we introduced in our initial 2013 publication, “Toward a Universal Taxonomy and Definition of Meditation”. At that time, we advanced the thesis that meditation methods could be effectively segregated into three orthogonal categories by integrating the taxonomic principle of functional essentialism and the paradigm of Affect and Cognition; and we presented relevant research findings which supported that assertion. This iteration expands upon those theoretical and methodological elements by articulating a more comprehensive Three Tier Classification System which accounts for the full range of meditation methods; and demonstrates how recent neuroscience research continues to validate and support our thesis. This paper also introduces a novel criterion-based protocol for formulating classification systems of meditation methods, and demonstrates how this model can be used to compare and evaluate various other taxonomy proposals that have been published over the past 15 years.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.