Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a chronic disease of the central retina and a leading cause of vision loss worldwide. Although the early stages of AMD may present asymptomatically, the disease may progress and lead to severe visual impairment via geographic atrophy (“late dry”) or neovascular (“wet”) AMD. In geographic atrophy (GA), there is progressive atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), choriocapillaris, and photoreceptors due to lipofuscin (Drusen) accumulation between the RPE and Bruch’s membrane.1 These Drusen deposits grow and create an inflammatory and metabolically dysfunctional environment for the photoreceptors supplying the macula (Figure 1).2 Eventually, the photoreceptors die off, and central vision is lost. In the wet form of AMD, choroidal neovascularization occurs, which leaks blood, fluid, and lipids leading to fibrous scarring and loss of vision (Figure 2).3

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