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This article is the author's final published version in Frontiers in Pharmacology, Volume 12, 14 April 2021, Article number 651415.

The published version, first published by Frontiers Media, S.A., is available at

Copyright © 2021 Al-Bawardy, Shivashankar and Proctor.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.


Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are chronic, relapsing and remitting disorders of intestinal inflammation with potential systemic manifestations. Despite the availability of current biologics, such as anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF), anti-integrins, anti-interleukins and small molecules such as tofacitinib, the rates of primary and secondary treatment failure remain high in IBD. This highlights the importance of continued development of new therapeutic targets and modifications of existing ones to improve the treatment response rates and to also improve the safety profile and tolerability of these medications. In this review we will discuss novel treatment target agents including selective janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors, anti-interleukin (IL) (IL-12/IL-23), leukocyte trafficking/migrating inhibitors (such as sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator) and other small molecules currently in development.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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