Hypotrichosis with juvenile macular dystrophy: Combination of whole-genome sequencing and genome-wide homozygosity mapping identifies a large deletion in CDH3 initially undetected by whole-exome sequencing-A lesson from next-generation sequencing.
BACKGROUND: Hypotrichosis with juvenile macular dystrophy (HJMD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by abnormal growth of scalp hair and juvenile macular degeneration leading to blindness. We have explored the genetic basis of HJMD in a large consanguineous family with 12 affected patients, 1-76 years of age, with characteristic phenotypes.
METHODS: We first applied genome-wide homozygosity mapping to 10 affected individuals for linkage analysis to identify the genomic region of the defective gene. All affected individuals shared a 7.2 Mb region of homozygosity on chromosome 16q21-22.3, which harbored 298 genes, including CDH3, previously associated with HJMD. However, whole-exome sequencing (WES) failed to identify the causative mutation in CDH3.
RESULTS: Further investigation revealed a missense variant in a gene closely linked to CDH3 (1.4 Mb distance: FHOD1: c.1306A>G, p.Arg436Gly). This variant was homozygous in all affected individuals and heterozygous in 18 out of 19 obligate carriers. While this variant was found by bioinformatics predictions to be likely pathogenic, a knock-in mouse for this variant, made by the CRISPR/Cas, showed no disease phenotype. However, using whole-genome sequencing (WGS), we were able to identify a novel Alu recombination-mediated deletion in CDH3:c.del161-811_246 + 1,044.
CONCLUSION: WGS was able to identify a deep intronic deletion mutation, not detected by WES.
Saeidian, Amir Hossein; Vahidnezhad, Hassan; Youssefian, Leila; Sotudeh, Soheila; Sargazi, Meisam; Zeinali, Sirous; and Uitto, Jouni, "Hypotrichosis with juvenile macular dystrophy: Combination of whole-genome sequencing and genome-wide homozygosity mapping identifies a large deletion in CDH3 initially undetected by whole-exome sequencing-A lesson from next-generation sequencing." (2019). Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology Faculty Papers. Paper 119.
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