Purpose: We performed a phase I study to determine the maximum tolerable dose (MTD) and safety of ipilimumab with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in patients with brain metastases (BM) from melanoma.

Methods: Based on intracranial (IC) disease burden, patients were treated with WBRT (Arm A) or SRS (Arm B). Ipilimumab starting dose was 3 mg/kg (every 3 weeks, starting on day 3 of WBRT or 2 days after SRS). Ipilimumab was escalated to 10 mg/kg using a two-stage, 3+3 design. The primary endpoint was to determine the MTD of ipilimumab combined with radiotherapy. Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), IC and extracranial (EC) control, progression free survival (PFS), and toxicity. This trial is regis- tered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01703507.

Results: Characteristics of the 16 patients enrolled between 2011 and 2014 were: mean age, 60; median BM, 2 (1 to >10); number with EC disease, 13 (81%). Treatment included WBRT (n=5), SRS (n=11), ipilimumab 3mg/kg (n=7), 10 mg/kg (n=9). Median follow-up was 8 months (Arm A) and 10.5 months (Arm B). There were 21 grade 1-2 neuro- toxic effects with no dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs). One patient experienced grade 3 neurotoxicity prior to ipilimumab administration. Ten additional grade 3 toxicities were reported with gastrointestinal (n=5, 31%) as the most common. There were no grade 4/5 toxicities. Median PFS and OS, respectively, in Arm A were 2.5 months and 8 months, and in Arm B were 2.1 months and not reached.

Conclusion: Concurrent ipilimumab 10 mg/kg with SRS is safe. The WBRT arm was closed early due to slow accrual, but demonstrated safety with ipilimumab 3 mg/kg. No patient experienced DLT. Larger studies with ipilimumab 10 mg/kg and SRS are warranted.