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This article is the author's final published version in Pharmaceuticals, Volume 16, Issue 1, 2023, Article number 89.

The published version is available at Copyright © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Background: During the treatment of age-related macular degeneration with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs, we often see cases with anti-VEGF-resistant refractory subretinal fluid. In this report, we present two cases of anti-VEGF-resistant refractory age-related macular degeneration (AMD) due to the concurrent development of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) in eyes previously well controlled with intravitreal anti-VEGF injections. Case presentation: Two patients underwent intravitreal aflibercept for the treatment of neovascular AMD. Initially, both patients responded well to intravitreal aflibercept, resulting in the complete resolution of the subretinal fluid. However, both patients subsequently developed sudden-onset refractory subretinal fluid that did not respond to repeated intravitreal aflibercept. Fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and swept-source optical coherence tomography revealed focal leakage spots, choroidal hyperpermeability, and dilated choroidal vessels, respectively, which were distinct from the pre-existing choroidal neovascularization and suggestive of newly developed CSCR. Laser photocoagulation of the leak spots resulted in the complete resolution of the once-refractory subretinal fluid and the maintenance of vision. Conclusions: Our cases highlight that anti-VEGF-refractory subretinal fluid may occur secondary to concurrent CSCR in patients receiving regular anti-VEGF treatments for AMD. In those patients, treatment for CSCR is effective for controlling subretinal fluid that is unresolved by anti-VEGF treatment.

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