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This article is the author's final published version in Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 12, Issue 4, 2022, Pg. 415 - 422.

The published version is available at Copyright © 2022 Taiwan J Ophthalmol. Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.


PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of muscle-relaxants as risk factors for the development of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) - the second most common retinopathy in our settings; despite multiple risk factors seen in our patients, 21% were initially labelled as idiopathic.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective case-control study at a tertiary hospital in the United Arab Emirates, where we reviewed the medical records of 273 patients with CSC examined between 2010 and 2019 for use of muscle-relaxants including tolperisone/eperisone, carisoprodol and gabapentin/pregabalin within a year of onset/recurrence of the disease. Intake of drugs with known association with CSC (including corticosteroids/sympathomimetics) was also recorded. Two hundred eighty-six subjects with adverse events seen at the same institute during the same study period served as controls. Odds ratios, Chi-Square tests and multivariate logistic regression were carried out to determine any associations with the muscle-relaxants and other pharmacological confounders - corticosteroids/sympathomimetics.

RESULTS: Muscle relaxants may increase the risk of CSC as evident on multivariate regression analysis (OR: 2.55; confidence interval [CI]: 1.208‑5.413); the significance was retained on removing the 6 subjects who had corticosteroids/sympathomimetics (OR: 2.30; CI: 1.073–4.939). Univariate analysis yielded an OR of 2.52 for muscle relaxants (CI: 1.2149–5.2276), 2.96 for eperisone/ tolperisone (CI: 1.3531–6.5038), and 6.26 for eperisone as an individual agent (CI: 1.8146–21.6252).

CONCLUSION: We found muscle relaxants to be associated factors of CSC regardless of inclusion of corticosteroids/sympathomimetics (P < 0.05). Among individual classes of muscle relaxants in this study, only eperisone/tolperisone posed a significant risk (P < 0.05). The vascular smooth muscle relaxation could be the possible mechanism that affects the choroidal blood flow and indirectly predisposes to CSC.

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