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This article is the author’s final published version in Cancers, Volume 14, Issue 16, August 2022, Article number 4034.

The published version is available at Copyright © Xu et al.


Six-Transmembrane Epithelial Antigen of the Prostate 1-4 (STEAP1-4) compose a family of metalloproteinases involved in iron and copper homeostasis and other cellular processes. Thus far, five homologs are known: STEAP1, STEAP1B, STEAP2, STEAP3, and STEAP4. In prostate cancer, STEAP1, STEAP2, and STEAP4 are overexpressed, while STEAP3 expression is downregulated. Although the metalloreductase activities of STEAP1-4 are well documented, their other biological functions are not. Furthermore, the properties and expression levels of STEAP heterotrimers, homotrimers, heterodimers, and homodimers are not well understood. Nevertheless, studies over the last few decades have provided sufficient impetus to investigate STEAP1-4 as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for prostate cancer. In particular, STEAP1 is the target of many emerging immunotherapies. Herein, we give an overview of the structure, physiology, and pathophysiology of STEAP1-4 to provide context for past and current efforts to translate STEAP1-4 into the clinic.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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