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This is the authors' accepted manuscript version of the article published in Urology, 2020, Oct 28. S0090-4295(20)31297-8.

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OBJECTIVE: To describe perspectives and experiences related to urology care-seeking of transgender and non-binary (TGNB) individuals assigned male at birth.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This HIPAA-compliant study was IRB approved and followed Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Studies (COREQ) guidelines. Through semistructured interviews, perspectives, and experiences of individuals related to urology care-seeking were explored. Open-ended questions were designed to elicit a range of responses rather than quantifiable data. Thematic codes were developed and explicitly defined. Codes pertaining to patient experiences were assessed and described.

RESULTS: Twenty-five TGNB individuals assigned male at birth were interviewed. Participants reported an array of factors that informed and inhibited care-seeking, factors that framed individual urologic care experiences, and their overall impression of the healthcare system's ability to effectively and respectfully serve the TGNB population. Specifically, participants reported that prior negative healthcare experiences dissuaded them from seeking care such as feeling discriminated against and having a lack of trust in providers. Additionally, participants reported feeling a need and responsibility to "educate" providers on both their medical needs and psychosocial experiences. Participants were also unclear how best to identify "trans-friendly" urologists who are culturally competent and have appropriate medical knowledge.

CONCLUSION: TGNB individuals face significant barriers to care for unique healthcare needs. TGNB participants described care avoidance and reported experiences of healthcare discrimination. These data highlight the importance for urologists to understand the perspectives and historical experiences of these individuals who may seek urological care.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

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