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This article is the author’s final published version in International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Volume 23, Issue 23, November 2022, Article number 14722.

The published version is available at Copyright © Saha et al.


Piperine (PIP) is a major phytoconstituent in black pepper which is responsible for various pharmacological actions such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor activity. To investigate the effects and mechanisms of PIP on cigarette smoke (CS)-induced lung pathology using both in-vitro and in-vivo models. BEAS-2B and A549 cells were exposed to CS extract (CSE) for 48 h; BALB/c mice were exposed to CS (9 cigarettes/day, 4 days) to induce features of airway disease. PIP at doses of (0.25, 1.25, and 6.25 µM, in vitro; 1 and 10 mg/kg, in vivo, i.n) and DEX (1 µM, in vitro; 1 mg/kg, in vivo, i.n) were used to assess cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), Sirtuin1 (SIRT1), inflammation-related cellular signaling, and lung function. PIP treatment protects cells from CSE-induced lung epithelial cell death. PIP treatment restores the epithelial marker (p < 0.05) and decreases the mesenchymal, inflammatory markers (p < 0.05) in both in vitro and in vivo models. The PIP treatment improves the altered lung function (p < 0.05) in mice induced by CS exposure. Mechanistically, PIP treatment modulates SIRT1 thereby reducing the inflammatory markers such as IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α (p < 0.05) and enhancing the epigenetic marker HDAC2 (p < 0.05) and antioxidant marker Nrf2 (p < 0.05) expressions. Thus, PIP alleviates pulmonary inflammation by modulating the SIRT1-mediated inflammatory cascade, inhibits EMT, and activates Nrf2 signaling.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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