A 41 year-old African American female with a history of asthma, hypertension, and schizophrenia presented to the ER in February 2005 with shortness of breath, wheezing, and a “wet-sounding” but nonproductive cough. She reported chills, subjective fever, rhinorrhea, and malaise for five days prior. Her only medication was albuterol, which she normally used twice weekly as needed. She was never intubated for asthma. On review of systems, she had progressive dyspnea on exertion of less than two blocks for the last year. She denied night sweats, weight loss, or sick contacts, HIV exposure, alcohol or drug abuse. She admitted to smoking 1 pack per day for more than 15 years.