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An old problem with a new therapy: GI Bleeding in VAD patients and deep bowel enteroscopy (Spiral and Double Balloon Enteroscopy) Purpose: Evidence suggests that patients treated with non-pulsatile ventricular assist devices (VAD) are at an increased risk for gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) beyond what is expected from routine anticoagulation. Diagnostic and treatment algorithms are currently undefined. We reviewed our experience of GIB in VAD patients and propose a new algorithm utilizing deep bowel enteroscopy (DBE) aimed to speed diagnosis and limit transfusions. (471) Methods & Procedures From 2004 to 2011, we studied 62 patients who received a non-pulsatile VAD at our center for episodes of GIB. GIB was defined as heme-positive stool, hematemeisis, or drop in Hgb>1gm. All patients were anticoagulated and no patient had any previous bleeding history. The diagnostic and treatment modalities utilized consisted of standard GIB tests but evolved into an algorithm based primarily on DBE. DBE consists of double-balloon and spiral enteroscopy that allow us to see and treat pathology in the small bowel upt o 400 cm beyond the Ligament of Treitz. (723) Results: There were 41 individual episodes of GIB in 14 patients. Separating the episodes into two groups based on days to diagnosis and days to treatment, we found that when the diagnosis was made and treated within 2 hospital days, patients received half (3.53 v. 7.33 with p

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