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This is the accepted manuscript from the Journal of Surgical Research, 2022 Jul;275:318-326.

The final published article can be found on the


INTRODUCTION: Gastric cancer (GC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Surgical resection is the gold standard of treatment. In the United States, race and socioeconomic status are associated with the diagnosis of GC; however, no studies have examined these as independent risk factors for surgical outcomes. Our study sought to investigate socioeconomic factors and GC surgical outcomes using a national cancer registry.

METHODS: GC patients between 2004 and 2016 were identified using the National Cancer Database. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze associations between socioeconomic factors and 30-d mortality, 90-d mortality, and unplanned readmission rate.

RESULTS: A total of 96,990 patients who received nonpalliative surgical treatment for GC were identified. When controlling for other clinical and socioeconomic factors, older age, male sex, higher comorbidities, larger tumor size, advanced stage disease, and inadequate resection were correlated with worse 30- and 90-d mortality. Additionally, 30-d and 90-d mortality was significantly lower when the patient's income (odds ratio [OR] = 0.77 and OR = 0.43, respectively, for >$63,333/y versus <$40.227/y) and the percentage of residents with a high school degree in their zip code (OR = 0.69 and OR = 0.52, respectively, for

CONCLUSIONS: Lower income and the level of education at the place of residence were independently associated with higher 30-d and 90-d mortality in this study, highlighting the potential for a major socioeconomic disparity in this population.

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