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This article is the author’s final published version in International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 18, September 2020, Article number 6757.

The published version is available at Copyright © Patel et al.


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most patients are diagnosed with advanced disease, limiting their options for treatment. While current treatments are adequate for lower staged disease, available systemic treatments are limited, with marginal benefit at best. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy, effective in treating liquid tumors such as B-cell lymphoma, presents a potentially promising treatment option for advanced HCC. However, new challenges specific to solid tumors, such as tumor immunoanatomy or the immune cell presence and position anatomically and the tumor microenvironment, need to be defined and overcome. Immunotherapy currently in use must be re-engineered and re-envisioned to treat HCC with the hopes of ushering in an answer to advanced stage solid tumor disease processes. Future therapy options must address the uniqueness of the tumors under the umbrella of HCC. This review strives to summarize HCC, its staging system, current therapy and immunotherapy medications currently being utilized or studied in the treatment of HCC with the hopes of highlighting what is being done and suggesting what needs to be done in the future to champion this therapy as an effective option.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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