Document Type


Publication Date



This article has been peer reviewed. It is the authors' final version prior to publication in Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery

Volume 20, Issue 2 February 2016, Pages 300-306.

The final publication is available at Springer via Copyright © The Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract


BACKGROUND: Pancreatic body and tail ductal adenocarcinomas are often diagnosed with local vascular invasion of the celiac axis (CA) and its various branches. With such involvement, these tumors have traditionally been considered unresectable. The modified Appleby procedure allows for margin negative resection of some such locally advanced tumors. This procedure involves distal pancreatectomy with en bloc splenectomy and CA resection and relies on the presence of collateral arterial circulation via an intact pancreaticoduodenal arcade and the gastroduodenal artery to maintain prograde hepatic arterial perfusion. When the resultant collateral circulation is inadequate to provide sufficient hepatic and gastric arterial inflow, arterial reconstruction (AR) is necessary to "supercharge" the inflow. Herein, we review all reported cases of AR with modified Appleby procedures that we have identified in the literature, and we report our experience of three recent cases with arterial reconstruction including two cases with arterial bypasses not requiring interposition grafting.

METHODS: Perioperative and oncologic outcomes from our Institutional Review Board-approved database of pancreatic resections at the Thomas Jefferson University were reviewed. Additionally, PubMed search for cases of distal or total pancreatectomy with celiac axis resection and concurrent AR was performed.

RESULTS: From the literature, 12 reports involving 28 patients were identified of distal and total pancreatectomy with AR after CA resection. The most common AR in the literature, performed in 12 patients, was a bypass from the aorta to the common hepatic artery (CHA) using a variety of interposition conduits. In our institutional experience, patient #1 had a primary side-to-end aorto-CHA bypass, patient #2 had a primary end-to-end bypass of the transected distal CHA to the left gastric artery in the setting a replaced left hepatic artery, and patient #3 required an aortic to proper hepatic artery bypass with saphenous vein graft and portal venous reconstruction. All patients recovered from their operations without ischemic complications, and they are currently 16, 15, and 13 months post-op, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: The criteria for resectability in patients with locally advanced pancreatic body and tail neoplasms are expanding due to increasing experience with AR in the setting of the modified Appleby procedure. When performing AR, primary arterial re-anastomosis may be considered preferable to interposition grafting as it decreases the potential for the infectious and thrombotic complications associated with conduits and it reduces the number of vascular anastomoses from two to one. Consideration must also be given to normal variant anatomy of the hepatic circulation during operative planning as the origin of the left gastric artery is resected with the CA. The modified Appleby procedure with AR, when used in appropriately selected patients, offers the potential for safe, margin negative resection of locally advanced pancreatic body and tail tumors.

PubMed ID