Document Type


Publication Date



This article is the author’s final published version in JPRAS Open, Volume 34, December 2022, Pages 34-40.

The published version is available at Copyright © 2022 The Authors.


Background: Although postoperative complications of paramedian forehead flap (PMFF) are generally low, surgical site complications and unplanned reoperation can still occur. Recent literature suggests infection to be the most common complication following PMFF reconstruction. This study sought to determine the patient and preoperative factors associated with surgical site complications and unplanned reoperations at a national level.

Methods: Patients who underwent PMFF reconstruction from the ACS-NSQIP 2007 - 2019 database were analyzed to determine composite surgical site morbidity and unplanned return to the operating room. Patient and operative factors were also analyzed to assess independent risk factors for surgical site morbidity and unplanned reoperation in the first 30 postoperative days.

Results: A total of 1,592 PMFF were analyzed between 2007 and 2019. Of these, 2.7% (43/1592) developed a composite surgical site complication in the first 30 postoperative days. Risk factors for composite surgical site complication included >10% weight loss in the previous 6 months (

Conclusion: Significant weight loss, disseminated cancer, prolonged operation time, low preoperative albumin, and hematocrit are associated with higher PMFF composite surgical site complications. Higher ASA and class 4 wound status are associated with an increased risk of unplanned reoperation.