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Systematic review written for the Master of Science in Occupational Therapy class Critical Inquiry II.


Currently, there is one systematic review conducted by Gochenour and Poskey7 that synthesize current research evidence regarding alternative seating for students with attention difficulties. A limitation of this review, as noted by the authors, is a lack of a consistent definition of attention difficulty in the studies they included. A systematic review focused on a specific, well-defined diagnosis will better contribute to practice recommendations since these recommendations will be tailored to a clear and comprehensive understanding of the child’s attentional and occupational challenges. The review also included studies of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).7 While those with ASD may also have difficulties with attention, in-seat behavior and occupational performance, the underlying mechanism yielding these symptoms may be different than in children with ADHD. Thus, alternative seating may not work in the same way for children with ASD as it would for children with ADHD.7 Thus, a systematic review is needed to examine the evidence from all current studies regarding alternative seating on improving attention, in-seat behavior and occupational performance in students with ADHD to increase evidence-based practice in the field of occupational therapy.