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This article has been peer reviewed. It is the authors' final version prior to publication in Journal of Diagnostic Medical Sonography

Volume 29, Issue 1, January 2013, Pages 11-14. The published version is available at DOI:10.1177/8756479312471583. Copyright © Sage Journals

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The term retro-aortic left renal vein (RLRV) is defined as the left renal vein coursing posterior to the abdominal aorta. RLRV is an uncommon condition in which the left renal vein passes posterior to the abdominal aorta and anterior to the vertebrae. RLRV may lead to left renal vein hypertension (LRVH) syndrome, which is also known as Nutcracker syndrome. Nutcracker syndrome (NCS) is a condition in which the left renal vein is compressed causing hypertension of the vessel. RLRV and Nutcracker syndrome are vascular anomalies considered to be of clinical importance especially during surgical procedures of the renal vasculature.

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