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© 2014 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. DOI: 10.13140/2.1.3762.0487


This paper describes the use of microwave radiometry for several diagnostic and therapeutic applications that can benefit from accurate non-invasive measurement of volume average temperature of tissue regions extending 4cm or more into the body. Design features are summarized for an appropriate high sensitivity long term stable system with 2.5 and 7 cm diameter receive antennas and integral 1.35 GHz total power radiometer electronics. Radiometer performance is characterized with electromagnetic and thermal simulations and experimental measurements in realistic models of two typical clinical applications. Results demonstrate sufficient sensitivity to track clinically significant changes in temperature of deep tissue targets for applications like the non-invasive detection of vesicoureteral reflux and monitoring brain “core” temperature during extended hypothermic surgery.

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