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© 2015 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. DOI: 10.1109/EuMC.2015.7345857


Drawing from space technology to measure star temperature, we developed a noninvasive sensor to passively track thermal profiles in tissues well below the skin (>5cm). Ultra-low noise amplifiers combined with ultralow-loss switches in the 1- 2GHz band produce a high sensitivity multiband microwave radiometer. Due to the complex multilayer anatomy of human head, multiple sensing bands are needed to reconstruct the temperature of deep brain tissue. This is achieved by using a digitally controlled filter bank. To study its accuracy, the sensor was calibrated and tested in a multilayer phantom model of the human head with differential scalp and brain temperatures. Results of phantom testing showed that calculated radiometric equivalent brain temperature agreed within 0.4°C of measured temperature when circulating homogenized brain phantom was lowered 10°C and returned to original temperature (37°C), while scalp was maintained constant over a 4.6-hour experiment. Feasibility of clinical monitoring was assessed in a pediatric patient during a hypothermic heart surgery. Over the 2-hour surgery, the radiometric sensor tracked within 1°C of rectal and nasopharynx temperatures, except during rapid cooldown and heatup periods when brain temperature deviated 2-4°C from slower responding core temperature surrogates. In summary, the sensor demonstrated long term stability and sensitivity sufficient for accurate monitoring of volume average brain temperature

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