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This article has been peer reviewed. It is the authors' final version prior to publication in World Journal of Urology Volume 28, Issue 2, April 2010, Pages 143-149. The published version is available at DOI: 10.1007/s00345-010-0525-7. Copyright © Springer


BACKGROUND: Endoscopic management of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma has assumed an important role in diagnosis and treatment. The introduction of small diameter rigid and flexible ureteroscopes has permitted access to the upper tract. Biopsy techniques have been developed for accurate diagnosis, and the addition of lasers has given the urologists an excellent tool for treatment. METHODS: Medical literature available relative to the endoscopic laser treatment of upper tract neoplasms has been reviewed. RESULTS: Ureteroscopic treatment has been characterized by good success with high recurrence rates, both in the upper tract and in the bladder. Bladder recurrence rates are similar to those seen after surgical treatment of upper tract tumors. Surveillance has been ureteroscopic since the other diagnostic options are inadequate. The holmium and neodymium:YAG lasers are the devices most commonly used now for the endoscopic treatment of upper tract tumors. CONCLUSION: Ureteroscopic treatment of upper tract neoplasms usually with ablation and resection using the neodymium and holmium: YAG lasers is a current acceptable procedure. This should be considered as one of the options in tumor treatment.

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