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This article is the author's final published version in Diagnostics, Volume 11, Issue 5, May 2021, Article number 880.

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Copyright © 2021 by the authors.

Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (


Morquio syndrome is a rare disease caused by a disorder in the storage of mucopolysaccharides that affects multiple organs, including musculoskeletal, respiratory, cardiovascular, and digestive systems. Respiratory failure is one of the leading causes of mortality in Morquio patients; thus, respiratory function testing is vital to the management of the disease. An automated respiratory assessment methodology using the pneuRIP device and a machine-learning algorithm was developed. pneuRIP is a noninvasive approach that uses differences between thoracic and abdominal movements (thoracic-abdominal asynchrony) during respiration to assess respiratory status. The technique was evaluated on 17 patients with Morquio (9 females and 8 males) between the ages of 2 and 57 years. The results of the automated technique agreed with the clinical assessment in 16 out of the 17 patients. It was found that the inverse cumulative percentage representation of the time delay between the thorax and abdomen was the most critical variable for accurate evaluation. It was demonstrated that the technique could be successfully used on patients with Morquio who have difficulty breathing with 100% compliance. This technique is highly accurate, portable, noninvasive, and easy to administer, making it suitable for a variety of settings, such as outpatient clinics, at home, and emergency rooms.

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