Next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of thyroid samples aids in risk stratification of cytologically indeterminate nodules and contributes to our understanding of molecular mechanisms in thyroid neoplasia. Several genes, including BRAF, RAS, and EIF1AX, are known to play a role in thyroid tumorigenesis. Here we report a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in which a single lesion harbored a novel YWHAG-BRAF fusion and EIF1AX mutation and displayed mixed morphological findings. The patient is a 74-year-old female with multiple incidentally discovered thyroid nodules, two of which were sampled by ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA). Cytologic diagnosis for both nodules was suspicious for follicular neoplasm (Bethesda Category IV). NGS testing of one nodule detected a novel in-frame YWHAG-BRAF fusion and a concurrent EIF1AX A113 splice mutation. The subsequent surgical resection specimen showed that this nodule exhibited two distinct morphologic patterns, conventional (classical) type and follicular variant (FV) of PTC, which were sharply demarcated and were found to harbor unique genetic alterations. Of note, this is the first report of BRAF activation through novel rearrangement with a gene encoding a 14-3-3 protein as a pathogenic factor, which underlines its significance both as a prognostic measurement and as a therapeutic target.
Lin, Ruihe; Wang, Zi-Xuan; Cottrill, Elizabeth; Badjatia, Nitika; and Gargano, Stacey, "Patient with Multiple Genetically Distinct Thyroid Nodules Including Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Harboring Novel YWHAG-BRAF Fusion" (2022). Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers. Paper 365.
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