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The hepatitis C virus (HCV) leads to chronic disease in 80% of those infected and is associated with a chronic inflammatory response that is mediated by both cytokine producing (CD4+) and cytotoxic T cells (CD8+). FoxP3-expressing, CD4+, CD25+T cells (T-regs) are a subset of T lymphocytes that inhibit immune responsiveness and thereby control immunological reactions. Whether FoxP3+ T regulatory cell-mediated suppression is a factor in HCV persistence and/or the course of chronic liver injury has not been defined. In order to assess the association between these T regulatory cells and the severity of chronic hepatitis C, we evaluated liver biopsies for the density of FoxP3-expressing cells in relation to the degree of inflammation.