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This article has been peer reviewed. It is the authors' final version prior to publication in Molecular Cell, Volume 66, Issue 6, June 2017, Pages 780-788.

The published version is available at Copyright © Elsevier


Ca2+ is a ubiquitous intracellular messenger that controls diverse cellular functions but can become toxic and cause cell death. Selective control of specific targets depends on spatiotemporal patterning of the calcium signal and decoding it by multiple, tunable, and often strategically positioned Ca2+-sensing elements. Ca2+ is detected by specialized motifs on proteins that have been biochemically characterized decades ago. However, the field of Ca2+ sensing has been reenergized by recent progress in fluorescent technology, genetics, and cryo-EM. These approaches exposed local Ca2+-sensing mechanisms inside organelles and at the organellar interfaces, revealed how Ca2+ binding might work to open some channels, and identified human mutations and disorders linked to a variety of Ca2+-sensing proteins. Here we attempt to place these new developments in the context of intracellular calcium homeostasis and signaling. © 2017 Elsevier

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