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This article has been peer reviewed. It is the authors' final version prior to publication in Orthopedic Clinics of North America, Volume 46, Issue 3, July 2015, Pages 399-408.

The published version is available at DOI: 10.1016/j.ocl.2015.02.008. Copyright © Elsevier Inc.


Modern anesthetic agents have allowed for the rapid expansion of ambulatory surgery, particularly in hand surgery. The choice between general anesthesia, peripheral regional blocks, regional intravenous anesthesia (Bier block), local block with sedation, and the recently popularized wide-awake hand surgery depends on several variables, including the type and duration of the procedure and patient characteristics, coexisting conditions, location, and expected length of the procedure. This article discusses the various perioperative and postoperative analgesic options to optimize the hand surgical patients' experience.

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