Enzymatic Depletion of Mitochondrial Inorganic Polyphosphate (polyP) Increases the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and the Activity of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway (PPP) in Mammalian Cells
Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is an ancient biopolymer that is well preserved throughout evolution and present in all studied organisms. In mammals, it shows a high co-localization with mitochondria, and it has been demonstrated to be involved in the homeostasis of key processes within the organelle, including mitochondrial bioenergetics. However, the exact extent of the effects of polyP on the regulation of cellular bioenergetics, as well as the mechanisms explaining these effects, still remain poorly understood. Here, using HEK293 mammalian cells under Wild-type (Wt) and MitoPPX (cells enzymatically depleted of mitochondrial polyP) conditions, we show that depletion of polyP within mitochondria increased oxidative stress conditions. This is characterized by enhanced mitochondrial O2− and intracellular H2 O2 levels, which may be a consequence of the dysregulation of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) that we have demonstrated in MitoPPX cells in our previous work. These findings were associated with an increase in basal peroxiredoxin-1 (Prx1), superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2), and thioredoxin (Trx) antioxidant protein levels. Using13 C-NMR and immunoblotting, we assayed the status of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in Wt and MitoPPX cells. Our results show that MitoPPX cells display a significant increase in the activity of the PPP and an increase in the protein levels of transaldolase (TAL), which is a crucial component of the non-oxidative phase of the PPP and is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress. In addition, we observed a trend towards increased glycolysis in MitoPPX cells, which corroborates our prior work. Here, for the first time, we show the crucial role played by mitochondrial polyP in the regulation of mammalian redox homeostasis. Moreover, we demonstrate a significant effect of mitochondrial polyP on the regulation of global cellular bioenergetics in these cells.
Hambardikar, Vedangi; Guitart-Mampel, Mariona; Scoma, Ernest; Urquiza, Pedro; Nagana, Gowda; Raftery, Daniel; Collins, John; and Solesio, Maria, "Enzymatic Depletion of Mitochondrial Inorganic Polyphosphate (polyP) Increases the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and the Activity of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway (PPP) in Mammalian Cells" (2022). Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Faculty Papers. Paper 174.
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