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This is the final published version of the article from Frontiers in Endocrinology, 23 September 2020.

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Publication made possible in part by support from the Jefferson Open Access Fund


The skeleton is well-innervated, but only recently have the functions of this complex network in bone started to become known. Although our knowledge of skeletal sensory and sympathetic innervation is incomplete, including the specific locations and subtypes of nerves in bone, we are now able to reconcile early studies utilizing denervation models with recent work dissecting the molecular signaling between bone and nerve. In total, sensory innervation functions in bone much as it does elsewhere in the body-to sense and respond to stimuli, including mechanical loading. Similarly, sympathetic nerves regulate autonomic functions related to bone, including homeostatic remodeling and vascular tone. However, more study is required to translate our current knowledge of bone-nerve crosstalk to novel therapeutic strategies that can be effectively utilized to combat skeletal diseases, disorders of low bone mass, and age-related decreases in bone quality.

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