Document Type


Publication Date



This is the author's final published version in Scientific Reports, Volume 12, Issue 1, December 2022, Article number 18389.

The published version is available at Copyright © The Author(s) 2022.

Publication made possible in part by support from the Jefferson Open Access Fund


In this study, we examined whether amplitude synchronization of medial (MTL) and lateral (LTL) temporal lobes can detect unique alterations in patients with MTL epilepsy (mTLE) with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). This was a retrospective study of preoperative resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) data from 31 patients with mTLE with MTS (age 23-69) and 16 controls (age 21-35). fMRI data were preprocessed based on a multistep preprocessing pipeline and registered to a standard space. Using each subject's T1-weighted scan, the MTL and LTL were automatically segmented, manually revised and then fit to a standard space using a symmetric normalization registration algorithm. Dual regression analysis was applied on preprocessed rsfMRI data to detect amplitude synchronization of medial and lateral temporal segments with the rest of the brain. We calculated the overlapped volume ratio of synchronized voxels within specific target regions including the thalamus (total and bilateral). A general linear model was used with Bonferroni correction for covariates of epilepsy duration and age of patient at scan to statistically compare synchronization in patients with mTLE with MTS and controls, as well as with respect to whether patients remained seizure-free (SF) or not (NSF) after receiving epilepsy surgery. We found increased ipsilateral positive connectivity between the LTLs and the thalamus and contralateral negative connectivity between the MTLs and the thalamus in patients with mTLE with MTS compared to controls. We also found increased asymmetry of functional connectivity between temporal lobe subregions and the thalamus in patients with mTLE with MTS, with increased positive connectivity between the LTL and the lesional-side thalamus as well as increased negative connectivity between the MTL and the nonlesional-side thalamus. This asymmetry was also seen in NSF patients but was not seen in SF patients and controls. Amplitude synchronization was an effective method to detect functional connectivity alterations in patients with mTLE with MTS. Patients with mTLE with MTS overall showed increased temporal-thalamic connectivity. There was increased functional involvement of the thalamus in MTS, underscoring its role in seizure spread. Increased functional thalamic asymmetry patterns in NSF patients may have a potential role in prognosticating patient response to surgery. Elucidating regions with altered functional connectivity to temporal regions can improve understanding of the involvement of different regions in the disease to potentially target for intervention or use for prognosis for surgery. Future studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of using patient-specific abnormalities in patterns to predict surgical outcome.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

PubMed ID