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This article is the author’s final published version in World Neurosurgery: X, Volume 5, January 2020, Article number 100067.

The published version is available at Copyright © Zanaty et al.


Introduction: We reviewed the literature on interventions for patients with medically refractory chronically occluded internal carotid artery (COICA) to assess the risks and/or benefits after recanalization via an endovascular technique (ET) or hybrid surgery (HS, i.e., ET plus carotid endarterectomy).

Methods: A systematic search of the electronic databases was performed. Patients with COICA were classified into 4 different categories according to Hasan et al classification.

Results: Eighteen studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Only 6 studies involved an HS procedure. We identified 389 patients with COICA who underwent ET or HS; 91% were males. The overall perioperative complication rate was 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.4%-13.1%). For types A and B, the successful recanalization rate was 95.4% (95% CI: 86.5%-100%), with a 13.7% (95% CI: 2.3%-27.4%) complication rate. For type C, the success rate for ET was 45.7% (95% CI: 17.8%-70.7%), with a complication rate of 46.0% (95% CI: 20.0%-71.4%) for ET and for the HS technique 87.6% (95% CI: 80.9%-94.4%), with a complication rate of 14.0% (95% CI: 7.0%-21.8%). For type D, the success rate of recanalization was 29.8% (95% CI: 7.8%-52.8%), with a 29.8% (95% CI: 6.1%-56.3%) complication rate. Successful recanalization resulted in a symmetrical perfusion between both cerebral hemispheres, resolution of penumbra, normalization of the mean transit time, and improvement in Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score (ΔMoCA = 9.80 points; P = 0.004).

Conclusions: Type A and B occlusions benefit from ET, especially in the presence of a large penumbra. Type C occlusions can benefit from HS. Unfortunately, we did not identify an intervention to help patients with type D occlusions. A phase 2b randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm these findings.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

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