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This is the author's final published version in Neurobiology of Disease, Volume 175, December 2022, Article number 105928.

The published version is available at Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.


Epileptiform spikes are used to localize epileptogenic brain tissue. The mechanisms that spontaneously trigger epileptiform discharges are not yet elucidated. Pathological fast ripple (FR, 200–600 Hz) are biomarkers of epileptogenic brain, and we postulated that FR network interactions are involved in generating epileptiform spikes. Using macroelectrode stereo intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings from a cohort of 46 patients we found that, in the seizure onset zone (SOZ), propagating FR were more often followed by an epileptiform spike, as compared with non-propagating FR (p < 0.05). Propagating FR had a distinct frequency and larger power (p < 1e-10) and were more strongly phase coupled to the peak of iEEG delta oscillation, which likely correspond with the DOWN states during non-REM sleep (p < 1e-8), than non-propagating FR. While FR propagation was rare, all FR occurred with the highest probability within +/− 400 msec of epileptiform spikes with superimposed high-frequency oscillations (p < 0.05). Thus, a sub-population of epileptiform spikes in the SOZ, are preceded by propagating FR that are coordinated by the DOWN state during non-REM sleep.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.