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This is the author's final published version in IBRO Neuroscience Reports, Volume 13, December 2022, Pg. 488 - 491.

The published version is available at Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Brain Research Organization.


PURPOSE: Our aim was to determine if headaches characteristic of possible Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH) and in general were more prevalent in patients with versus without temporal encephaloceles (TEs) among patients with epilepsy.

METHODS: Electronic medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Among 474 patients with epilepsy, 103 patients (21.7%) had at least one TE diagnosed on initial MRI or on retrospective review by a board-certified neuroradiologist, while 371 patients had no TE present. The patients were grouped into one of four categories depending on their headache characteristics (IIH-like, peri-ictal, other, or no headaches). Analysis of the categories was performed using a Chi Square test.

RESULTS: Patients with TEs were more likely to experience headaches of any type than no headaches and more likely to experience IIH-like headaches than to have other headaches or no headaches compared to patients without TEs. Interestingly, patients with TEs were also more likely to experience peri-ictal headaches compared to patients without TEs. However, patients with TEs were no more likely or unlikely to have other (non-IIH or peri-ictal) headaches vs no reported headaches and were not more or less likely to have elevated opening pressure.

CONCLUSION: On retrospective review, patients with TEs and epilepsy were more likely to exhibit headache features characteristic of IIH or to have peri-ictal headaches compared to epilepsy patients without TEs. These findings underscore the need for careful and thorough history of associated headaches in patients with epilepsy so that those patients at risk for TEs can undergo careful inspection of MRI to evaluate for their presence, which may represent a focus for seizures.

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