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This article is the author’s final published version in Acta Medica Iranica, Volume 59, Issue 6, August 2021, Pages 322-326.

The published version is available at Copyright © 2021 Tehran University of Medical.


The aim of the current study was to investigate the rates of stress, anxiety, and depression among people in south Iran (a group from the general population without a history of any chronic medical problems, and cohorts of patients were recruited from epilepsy, diabetes, and cardiac disease clinics). We surveyed a sample of people during September 2020: a group of the general population without a history of any chronic medical problems, people with epilepsy, people with diabetes mellitus (DM), and people with cardiac problems. The survey included four general questions and two COVID-19 specific questions [contracting COVID-19, relatives with COVID-19]. Furthermore, the survey included the DASS (Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale)-21 questionnaire. 487 people were surveyed (154 people with epilepsy, 127 patients with DM, 98 people with cardiac problems, and 108 healthy individuals). Among people without a history of any chronic medical illnesses, 14% had any psychological problems. The highest rates of depression and anxiety were observed among patients with DM (52% and 57%, respectively), and the highest rate of increased stress was observed among people with cardiac problems (40%). The existence of any underlying medical problem was significantly associated with higher rates of depression, anxiety, and stress among the participants. While many patients with underlying chronic medical conditions suffer from depression, anxiety, and stress during the COVID-19 pandemic, we cannot establish a cause and effect relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and increased psychological problems among these patients.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License