Document Type


Publication Date



This is the final published version of the article from the journal Cancers 2022, 14(5),1296.

The article can also be found at the journal's website:

Copyright. The Authors


Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) harness the immune system and are the therapy of choice for multiple cancers. Although immunosuppressive agents such as steroids are also used in many cancers, it is unknown how their timing affects treatment outcomes. Thus, we investigated the relationship between the timing of steroid exposure preceding ICI administration and subsequent treatment outcomes in melanoma. This population-based study utilized the SEER-Medicare-linked database to identify patients diagnosed with melanoma between 1991 and 2015 and receiving ICIs between 2010 and 2016, examining last steroid exposure in the 12 months preceding ICI. The main outcome was all-cause mortality (ACM) after ICIs. Modifications of the Cox proportional hazards model were used to calculate time-dependent hazards. Of 1671 patients with melanoma receiving ICIs, 907 received steroids. Compared with no steroids, last steroid exposures ≤1 month and 1–3 months prior to ICIs were associated with a 126% and 51% higher ACM within 3 months post ICI initiation, respectively (hazard ratio (HR): 2.26, 95% CI: 1.65–3.08; and HR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.01–2.27). Steroid exposure within 3 months of initiating ICIs was associated with increased mortality up to 6 months after ICI. Further investigation is warranted to elucidate mechanisms affecting outcomes due to steroids.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.



Included in

Oncology Commons