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This article is the author’s final published version in Cancers, Volume 13, Issue 21, November 2021, Article number 5503.

The published version is available at Copyright © Seedor et al.


Despite successful treatment of primary uveal melanoma, up to 50% of patients will develop systemic metastasis. Metastatic disease portends a poor outcome, and no adjuvant or metastatic therapy has been FDA approved. The genetic landscape of uveal melanoma is unique, providing prognostic and potentially therapeutic insight. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the molecular and cytogenetic mutations in uveal melanoma, and the importance of obtaining such information. Most of our knowledge is based on primary uveal melanoma and a better understanding of the mutational landscape in metastatic uveal melanoma is needed. Clinical trials targeting certain mutations such as GNAQ/GNA11, BAP1, and SF3B1 are ongoing and promising. We also discuss the role of liquid biopsies in uveal melanoma in this review.

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