Document Type


Publication Date

March 2001


This article has been peer reviewed. It was originally published in the Journal of Pancreatology (JOP), 2(2):83-87, March 2001.


Objective: To study the association of ACE gene polymorphism and diabetic nephropathy in South Indian subjects.

Setting: Outpatient clinic of a specialized hospital.

Patients: The study included 109 South Indian type 2 diabetic patients (72 males and 37 females; age 56.7±9.0 years, mean±SD). The patients were subdivided into two groups: nephropathic (n=86) and normoalbuminuric patients (n=23).

Interventions: Genomic DNA was isolated from the peripheral blood leukocytes. To determine the ACE genotype, genomic DNA was amplified by PCR initially using a flanking primer pair and, subsequently when necessary, with a primer pair that recognizes the insertion specific sequence for confirmation of the specificity of the amplification reactions.

Main outcome measures: ACE genotype distribution in the two study groups.

Results: In the nephropathic patients, ID and DD genotypes were present in 52.3% and 27.9% of the patients, respectively as compared to 34.8% and 21.7% respectively in those with normoalbuminuria. The D allele was present in 80.2% of the nephropathic patients and 56.5% of the normoalbuminuric patients (c 2=4.28, P=0.039; odds ratio 3.12). Therefore, the higher percentage of II genotype in the normoalbuminuric group was 43.5% as compared to the 19.8% in nephropathic patients.

Conclusions: This study showed a positive association between the D allele (ID and DD genotype) of the ACE polymorphism and diabetic proteinuria in South Indian type 2 diabetic patients. Our findings are in keeping with several earlier studies showing a strong association of the D allele of the ACE gene with diabetic nephropathy.