Recipients of solid organ transplants are at risk for a variety of infections due to their immunocompromised status. The types of infections are often correlated to the timing from their transplant. After about six to twelve months, transplant recipients remain at risk for typical community acquired pathogens, late viral infections, and fungal infections including atypical molds such as Cladophialophora bantiana. C. bantiana is a dematiaceous fungus that has a predilection for infecting the brain and is the most common cause of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis - a term used to describe infections caused by molds that produce dark cell walls. Patients with cerebral abscesses due to C. bantiana infections have an estimated mortality of about 70%. Improved outcomes have been seen in patients who receive both surgical and antifungal therapy. While there are no clear guidelines on antifungal therapy, most cases have been treated with combination amphotericin B, a triazole (itraconazole, voriconazole, or posaconazole) with flucytosine sometimes in conjunction as well. This case describes a patient with C. bantiana brain abscess and concurrent Cryptococcus neoformans pulmonary infection that occurred twenty years after his kidney transplantation. He was treated successfully with two craniotomies for cerebral abscess debridement and liposomal amphotericin B followed by planned lifelong voriconazole.
Tsang, Daniel; Haddad, Sara; Sahin, Ziver; Vareechon, Chairut; Sternlieb, Mitchell; and Royer, Tricia., "Cladophialophora Bantiana Brain Abscess and Concurrent Pulmonary Cryptococcus Neoformans Infection in a Patient Twenty Years After Renal Transplantation" (2022). Department of Medicine Faculty Papers. Paper 391.
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