Document Type


Publication Date



This article is the author’s final published version in Antibodies, Volume 11, Issue 3, September 2022, Article number 58.

The published version is available at Copyright © Ravindranath et al.


Cell-surface HLA-I molecules consisting of β2-microglobulin (β2m) associated heavy chains (HCs), referred to as Face-1, primarily present peptides to CD8+ T-cells. HCs consist of three α-domains, with selected amino acid sequences shared by all alleles of all six isoforms. The cell-surface HLA undergoes changes upon activation by pathological conditions with the expression of β2m-free HCs (Face-2) resulting in exposure of β2m-masked sequences shared by almost all alleles and the generation of HLA-polyreactive antibodies (Abs) against them. Face-2 may homodimerize or heterodimerize with the same (Face-3) or different alleles (Face-4) preventing exposure of shared epitopes. Non-allo immunized males naturally carry HLA-polyreactive Abs. The therapeutic intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) purified from plasma of thousands of donors contains HLA-polyreactive Abs, admixed with non-HLA Abs. Purified HLA-polyreactive monoclonal Abs (TFL-006/007) generated in mice after immunizing with Face-2 are documented to be immunoregulatory by suppressing or activating different human lymphocytes, much better than IVIg. Our objectives are (a) to elucidate the complexity of the HLA-I structural variants, and their Abs that bind to both shared and uncommon epitopes on different variants, and (b) to examine the roles of those Abs against HLA-variants in maintaining immune homeostasis. These may enable the development of personalized therapeutic strategies for various pathological conditions.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

PubMed ID